The Phaistos disc alias the Minoan Calendar

A Pythagorean solution

By Ole Hagen

The secret of the calendar pyramid.

A radical survey over the various lay-outs for a precision calendar, based on my discovery of duplexity, within the realistic borders of the type-face interpretation of the inscription, as a set-off to the previous opinion of the types as syllables in a text.

Under the on-going process of demonstrating the calendar path, I go through several arrangements of signs and sign-groups, which 'while sampled' strongly indicate 'like brooks make river' that these hieroglyphs represent something else than language, satisfactory substantiated in the three initial examples right beneath:

- The 46 individual signs & The 22 stem-forms
- I define a stem as two signs, and ' hey presto! 'all hurdles vanish into thin air ...
- The 61 dissimilar elements
- Yet another rabbit out of the magicians top hat
- The 50 stem-sign-groups on a string.
- An alternative, vertical and non-linear, direction of reading.

The quadrature of the (calendar) circle.

Writers are divided about the numbers of characters on the disc. I have come across the totals: 241, 242 and 243, of which 242 characters is the most common opinion (i). 242 is written as 11² + 11². (indicators)
As something new I contemplate the two dotted dividers ahead of A01 and B01 as true characters, and the total amount is in my view 242 + 2 = 244 characters or 10² + 12². As it happens 244 is a multiple of 61, which is of mathematical significance, in that the disc is divided into exactly 61 (5² + 6²) signgroups.Accordingly the signgroups hold an average of exactly four signs.
After this, the calendar aspect gets into the picture, as six multiplied with 61 is equal to 366, corresponding to a leap year, and 365 - 244 = 121, thus the inscription is missing 11² characters. 10² (+ 11² )+ 12² = 365. This missing third part has no substantial presence in the inscription, but stands abbreviated (ii) As you see eleven rules as the common denominator.

The visible inscription ,with its actual 244 characters, corresponds with two third of a year or eight months, in which side A's now 124 characters could represent four months of 31 days each, and side B's 120 are equal to four months of 30 days (iii). In this same way all other revised enumerations become full of hope, when you are ready to accept our two circumferential dividers as true characters.
So why choose 241 and chaos? when nothing talks against 244 signs in harmony

Through my method of investigation and its results as an entirety, which presumably reveals a Minoan calendar, I have gained the authority to claim those above data, which do not speak in favour of a language.
 My appeal to everyone, 'right and decent', is then: Be absolutely honest about your natural enthusiasm to this break-through to the riddle!, which certaintly represents my life ...

If you as an editor of a good standing periodical see this page and take interest in my discovery, then please contact me for a solitary publication of my proposal for an alternative alphabetic notation. This would be a helpful introduction for everyone, who wants to study those hieroglyphs, not as syllables, but as quantities, and a great support for me. A text should be reduced to a brief editorial comment. - This would be perfection. -

Three decisive openings, as a consequence of the twenty-two stem-forms :

- The six initial sign-groups of side A are in continuation of side B, giving part A and part B.
-My advancements are numerous. As an example, this figure emphasizes that the inscription is a folding up of two variations over the same manifest.

- The super-relation between the thirty-three pair of stems and the reduced stems "The Gnomonical arrangement",
- and therefore this inscription is not language. - That is a proof -. The two halves are profoundly congruent.

- The calendar takes form, when the two initial signs in front of A01 and B01 are interpreted as part of the sign-material. - It is a fact that a count with 244 signs instead, makes an eight month calendar a reality

In any cryptanalytic problem a single sure entry solves the problem (iv) :

I define a stem as a sequence of two signs,
repeated in at least one more sign-group.
The stem is not allowed to overlap any other stem,
which can be confirmed by a more often presence.

It is naive, if not suspect, to argue that the unravelling of the 70 stems is just a two way choice 'either calendar or language'. They were a million way choice.There are no comparison between the common process of getting familiar with an inscription, for instance by recognizing that B22 and B29 are related groups, or to observe that B21 is a repetiton of B26 etc., contra the process of realising the absolute amount of 70 stems, which is a countable and sophisticated product.


Conclusion - Postscript

During one hundred years (3500 years?) nothing occured. Now suddenly a handle appears out of its smooth surface.
A storage medium , a compact disc:
Imagine a scenario of 22 couples holding 61 weekly meetings each year If B, by way of example, is unavoidable detained, then A stands as surety:(B)A. All 22 couples are obliged to participate by both in at least two weekly gatherings pro anno. A further set of complicated rules are followed strictly, and carefully entered into the annual minutes. Such construction, in its broader aspects, corresponds better with the platonic bodies that I've discovered, whereas a language-structure in verse and with rhymes and grammar do not produces minutely gnomonical arrangements by itself (v). Had this been the case, then similar linguistic paradigmae would have been available from the Literature, under the device "Nothing new under the sun", - they are not! - E.F.A.N.K. - ( Evidence for a non-linguistic key to the problem ).
Point: The various translation attempts don't even follow a common agreement upon the breaking up of the entirety into sentences, because of the complexity of the postulated text.
Also the disc contains as many as 53 different signgroups out of 61.
Let the high flying notions that these hieroglyphs represent a text simultaneously be pigeonholed for the far out future instead. and keep concentrated on the annual ledger inside

- The 61 elements in near hierarchical order
My highscore: 59 correct and 2 failures - what a presto!
(against Christoph Henkel: 32 correct and 29 failures ;-)

Time to give in! The twenty-two stem-forms have become the new units - no back-door, thank you.

Postscript, continued...

Now when the probability has been made, that the signgroups are not inevitably words, but rather ideographic records of weekly functions, then new prospects of investigations emerge, in contrast to the thoroughly tested standard of references to the linear inscriptions from Crete.
To put an interpretation on pictures from the edge of historic time is very interesting, but also continually reflected by the imperfect documentation, though perhaps there will also be shown to be an analogy to something of common historical property, what concerns the imagery of the signs, or it will show that the pictorial message is a sealed chapter in an even higher extent, than e.g. the symbols of the never doubted Maya calendar.
Let me emphasize, that my superior objective with this investigation was to attain insight in the regularities, from which the sequences of signs were composed. In other words, I was not occupied with interpretations of the signs as images, but with an investigation of their interrelations and frequencies. This proved to be the right angel of approach.
The accomplishment of my decoding of the inscription implied a good number of disciplines, yet I am still not adept on calendar mathematic, and the continued unravelling of this calendar I shall leave to the readers, when a mention of my 'unexpected discovery' of the true proportions is effected in a way, proportional to the importance of my discovery, that everyone who has tried his hand at this enigmatic disc, amateurs as well as scholars, in this way shall get admission to my results. Then I trust, that someone among the readers will take inspiration from my method of investigation and its result, to place the last intricate piece, by the aid of one of my variations over this newfound calendar, and thereby finally confirming my decipherment. It ought not to take that long.
The science of counting things is basically the discipline of turning problems into enumeration statements to find out if they can be solved that way.

My statistics are hold on several related levels within the stem concept.

[1]. The visible sign-material of 242 signs and the two initial dividers regarded as part of the inscription, giving 244 signs. - Alpha minus -(no thorns)61 x4
[2]. The same material added the 17 thorn-units, giving 244+17=261 units. - Alpha plus -.29 x 9
[3]. The expanded inscription. The above 261 units together with the absent 104 units from the incomplete (reduced) elements, giving 261+104=365 units, or 262+104=366, if 18 thorns. - Beta plus -. 61 x 6
[4]. 244+104=348, (no thorns) - Beta minus -.29 x12
[5]. Finally 'The alternative calendar'. Here I choose to combine 44 consequtive reduced elements into 22 so-called "combies", leaving only 60 reduced elements instead of the otherwise 104. Following these metrical footsteps :
_ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ . _ .
[6]. Recently I have implicated a variation called ”The fleur-de-lis calendar" in which I am probing the possibility of an intentional obliterated sign in A08 and the common uncertainty about the numbers of thorns of which 16, 17, or 18 have been suggested. Total 243+103+18=364 units
[7]. 'Husk & Kernel calendar'. "The relation between the signs and the sign-groups is calendrical".
Signs =244. Arcs and dividers =60+61 =365 units
This taken into consideration, you can trust that my figures and my enumerations are as precise as can be. By being conversant with the use of my designations, you'll find that everything is not so difficult, as it seems. - It is a geometrical solution -.


OK, let us do some housecleaning, here - In my endeavour to pour the "philosopher's stone" in one piece, I had to invent two separate keys.
First key: The seventy genuine stems. - Leading to the conclusion: The gnomonical arrangement, through the aid of multiple of eleven.

The two halves are congruent. Good-bye language! - Now eased in mind, let us continue in confidence with our newly acquired knowledge. What is next?
Second key: The two (pearl-decorated) initial dividers harmonize the inscription into a perfect eight months calendar.
To be combined with the seventy stems through abbreviations "reduced stems" to become a full circle 366-day calendar.

NB. My many figures are only depending in part on the "reduced stems". The expansion, through abbreviations, to a full calendar is mainly a logical improvement.

Supplementary notes.
This paper is a revised and expanded version of a little preprint in 50 copies, which I had issued for about twenty-five years back (some few copies are availiable from the author), but as I feel that my method of investigation and its results deserves some more attention, I have, against my own interests, used further- more time (as I am waiting) to demonstrate more perspectives of my discovery.

(i). These differing opinions are all about, whether the only illegible character on the disc, the outlying sign in A08, is obliterated by design, or failing that, if two signs were in its place. I accept any sign , but I prefer a stemsign of stemgroup II, and the sign "P" is the best match. [In contrast: this is not a mere 'choice by chance', but has back-up from an unmistakable and coherent arrangement of the stem-elements. -Through all ages, a textbook example in code-breaking!].
(ii). Ottomar und Malte, Neuss: Der Diskos von Phaistos 'Kryptogramm eines Kalenders- Interpretation eines Kulttextes aus Kreta', Kurz und Gut heft 1 (Frankfurt 1975) calls attention to this fact: Face B's 119 signs plus twice face A's 123 signs establish 365 signs in total [Another obvious suggestion next to language will be a calendar. Are those twin-brothers our stars, if a calendar?]
So too L. Pomerance, The Phaestos Disc. An interpretation of Astronomical Symbols (Göteborg 1976) 34. 'By turning the Disc eleven times and observing it twelve times, the total annual count comes to 366 unit days...'. - Ergo: side A's 31 and side B's 30 signgroups compose two months in this opinion.
(iii). It is worth notice, that the glossary of linear B contains eight words only, which are considered to be names of months. John Chadwick, Documents in Mycenaean Greek (Cambridge 1956).
(iv)In any cryptanalytic problem a single sure entry solves the problem. A quotation from Benjamin Schwartz, The Phaistos Disc I. (JNES XVIII 1959), 108. [Used as defense for his choice of "crested warrior" as the vowel "A", on that he leans back,and exiles from this topic, unhurt.- Shall he at last bear the palm alone, if the warrior turns out an "A"?]
(v). The main reason why this calendar were overlooked, is in my opinion the different amounts of characters in the signgroups (from two to seven), which have misled several generations of researchers to believe, that the inscription was inevitably writing. Besides, the statistical informations of initial, medial and final placing of the characters, do not set themselves against the signgroups being words, until the 22 stemforms are defined/chosen.[Or is'nt it, to be honest, the hermetical restricted discovery of mine , that calls for Victory?]
(vi). Davis, Simon, The decipherment of the Minoan Linear A and Pictographic Scripts (Johannesburg 1967), fig.97. This actual quadripartited sealstone can be seen as a kri-kris, partial hidden behind a bush (only its horn visible), and a startled bird (heliacal rising of Venus?). The seal (impression?) has some analogy with the signgroup A09 .[Leon Pomerance essentially leans back in trust that these are the constellations Eagle and Snake in his very entertaining book - Is he our true champion?]
(vii). Ideograph Written or printed character that symbolizes the idea of a thing without indicating the sounds that make up the word. (The A.L.D of Current English)
(viii). Phaistos disc. Other spellings: Phaestos, Faestos, Faistos ..
(ix). E.F.A.N.K Evidences for a non-linguistic key to the problem.

" You cannot change the eternal circles of the celestial bodies; but the grammar of an extinct language you can easily make up "

Now I've ended my analysis of the consequences of the 22 stemforms. Besides I've analysed the consequences 'by the instrumentality of a mirror' of the reflections from others to my discovery, tempting the great risk of (definition:) being sacrificed by disingenuous persons, taking bites out of the bigger context with the unintelligible wish to do harm This stuff is available among various newsgroups.Discussions. essential thirteen Anecdotes
I take myself as a marathon man (2) from the moment, when I did show forward my discovery in trust and confidence, to 'the still to come' moment of acceptance of my decipherment. The resistance against my results was starting where it should have ended.

You react creatively towards natural and neccesary opposition, opposite than to the complementary not neccesary and artificial kind.-These are two different worlds ! - My mission was to decode this impossible riddle, so I did.
The archaeological site of Phaistos
Anistoriton (Back-issue)
Four Ahau Press
Rosario Vieni: Un calendario vecchio

The forgotten cover of the Phaistos disc
The individual signs in near hierarchical order
The Arkalochori axe
A calendar pyramid
The Pioneer plaque -, improved
A calendar within a deck of playing cards
1) The 70 combi-elements in hierarchical order
2) One chain
3) Alexander the Great was here
The problem in a nutshell
Alias multiplication tables
Das kleine Einmaleins
Sign group structures
Alles ist Buchstaben
External structure - Signs and sign-groups on the same string.

It takes an unusual inscription for you to calculate the correct identity "P" from a blank.


- A nine months calendar of 261 units
- A three quarter part of 348



Second circular reasoning. The last trouchee



Web Counters
Web Site Hit Counter 1985: Professor Kristian Jeppesen, - professor Kirsten Hastrup, - lecturer Jens Høyrup, - 1986: Sfinx, Chief-editor Erik Hallager - C. Niebuhr Institut, Amumiensis Aage Westenholz. - 1987: Studies in Mediterreanean Archaeology, Paul Åkstrøm, - Fogtdals Blade A/S, Inge Damm, - 1988: Harvard university library, - Astronomisk Tidsskrift, G. Larson Leander, - Illustreret Videnskab, Mogens Esrom Larsen, - 1989: Norseman federatjon, Johan Heyerdahl, - Walther de Gruyter Kadmos, Dr. M.L. Liebe Harkort, - Gnomon, Dr. Ernst Vogt, - Dr. John Chadwick, - Ord&Bild, Michael Løfgren, - Statistical Methods In Linguistic, Doc. Hans Carlgren, - Naional Geographic society, - Bech'sche Verlag, - JNES, Editor Robert D. Biggs, - Museum of Iraclion Library, C. H Kritzaz, - Minos, University of Salamanca, - 1990: AJA, Fred S. Kleiner, - Astronomisk Selskab, Allan Hornstrup, - 1997: American Mathematical Monthly, Richard Bumby. - 1998: New Scientist, John hoyland - Scientific American, - - California press, Berkeley, Kate Toll. - Anistoriton, Prof. Demetris I. Loizos. - Etc., etc.,etc . . . 2000.
Godfather beware me well!